Later, when the Romans had gone, Northumbria became the northern kingdom of England, stretching from the Forth to the Humber. Again, the evidence is in the landscape, if you can find it, not only of its fortifications, but also of its parliament.
The beginnings of Christianity in Britain are found at Lindisfarne, and the ruins of its monasteries are scattered over the map.
Out and about
Northumberland has a rich variety of things to do and see. Its glorious, unspoiled landscape is punctuated by imposing castles, picturesque villages and many a watering-hole.
The area is popular with those who like water-sports, fishing, golf, walking, cycling and bird-watching.
Bamburgh, Seahouses, the Farne Islands and Holy Island (Lindisfarne), if you like the coast, are all a drivable distance away. The coast itself is celebrated for its long unspoilt sandy beaches and its spectacular rocky shores.
All over Northumberland the landscape shows the scars of its turbulent history, from the Hadrian's Wall itself and the numerous medieval castles, to the fortified (Pele) towers built for protection against the cross-border raids of the reivers.
But the visible evidence goes back still further, before England, before Scotland and even before Rome. Just look at any Ordnance Survey map of the county and you will see marked hundreds of stone-age settlements, some of the oldest in the UK. Then there are the mysterious 'cup and ring' marked rocks all around, if you look.